Arsélio P. Carvalho received his Ph.D in Cell Physiology, in 1963, from the University of California, at Berkeley. He then joined the staff at the Institute for Muscle Disease, in New York, as a research associate, 1963-1970, and simultaneously held a teaching appointment at the School of General Studies at Columbia University, New York (1964-1967). In 1970, he moved to the University of Coimbra, Portugal, where he was appointed full professor and head o the Department of Zoology, where he launched one of the first research centers in Cell Biology in Portugal (1976), which eventually gave rise to the first center for Neuroscience in Portugal (1990) under his direction. After his official retirement age, in 2004, he became Emeritus Professor (“Professor Jubilado”), and honorary director of the center for Neuroscience. In 2005, he founded the Institute for Education and Citizenship in his hometown, Mamarrosa, which functions as an interface between research centers and schools. He was awarded a Honorary Doctor title by the University of Aveiro (2017) and an honorary title by the Portuguese Republic (2007). He is a member of the Academia Europea and of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences. His research interests focused mainly in the study of the basic functions of calcium and nitric oxide as triggering and neurotoxic agents.